Glossary - c

Definitions of all our inspection terms.

  • Canllaw Online Credu project

    The Canllaw Online Credu project (Credu means to believe in Welsh) aims to bring education in computer equipment and ICT skills to all young people. This is done through improving existing programmes and locations where young people are already working.

  • Careers Wales Association

    An umbrella organisation for Careers Wales companies

  • CATs

    CATs are the Cognitive Abilities Tests published by Granada Learning (GL) Assessment (formerly NFERNelson) and assess a pupil’s ability for verbal, quantitative and non-verbal reasoning. They are designed to minimise the role of prior learning and can therefore provide an indication of potential.

  • Challenge adviser

    The role of challenge advisers is to provide schools with monitoring, challenge, intervention and support to ensure that head teachers and governors evaluate their performance, identify priorities for improvement, and secure positive change in school performance. Challenge advisers will be drawn from either a local authority or school background, including current serving school leaders.

  • Childcare Strategy for Wales

    The strategy is a result of the recommendations made in a report by the Childcare Working Group. It states that childcare can come from the state, private provision or voluntary commitment and suggests that these three areas should work to support each other. The three main aims of the strategy are to:
    •  make sure that childcare supports the developmental needs of children in Wales;
    •  make sure that childcare is widely available and affordable; and
    •  provide childcare so that parents can balance work, family and other commitments.
  • Children and Young People’s Plans

    Local education authorities have to produce a Children and Young People’s Plan. These are to co-ordinate the education and training for children and young people from birth to the age of 25.

  • Clwb Dal i Fynd

    A scheme which encourages pupils to keep fit by running.

  • Coaching and Mentoring Certificate and Diploma

    The level 3 Certificate in Coaching and Mentoring is designed for key skills specialists with a minimum of one year’s successful experience in delivering and assessing one or more key skills. The focus of the qualification is on using coaching as an improvement tool, helping key skills specialists to pass on their experience and expertise to others.
    The level 5 Diploma in Management Coaching and Mentoring is designed for experienced key skills co-ordinators and managers to actively support the growth and development of key skills within their organisation.
  • Collective worship

    By law, schools must hold a daily act of collective worship. The law states that most acts of collective worship in each term should be ‘wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian nature’. For further guidance, see Estyn’s supplementary guidance on inspecting collective worship (supplementary guidance on inspecting collective worship).

  • Common Investment Fund

    A Welsh Government initiative to promote collaborative working, improvements in the learning infrastructure, the quality of the learning experience and the quality of the learning environment.

  • Communities First

    Communities First is the Welsh Government's programme to improve the living conditions and prospects for people in the most disadvantaged communities across Wales.

  • Community development and learning

    This learning covers courses and activities that help learners to gain knowledge and skills. They use what they learn to make positive contributions to the life of their communities.

  • Community-focused schools

    Community-focused schools provide a range of services and activities, often beyond the school day, to help meet the needs of its pupils, their families and the wider community.

  • Community Payback

    Community Payback is the replacement for Community Service. Courts are given the power to sentence offenders of certain crimes to undertake between 40 and 300 hours of Community Payback. This work is unpaid and demanding work that is aimed at giving something to local communities and forcing offenders to repay the community for the wrong they have done.

  • Community Strategy

    This is a plan that sets out how a council can improve the economic, social and environmental wellbeing of the people in its area. It identifies a number of issues and proposals for tackling them.

  • Compulsory school age

    Compulsory school age covers the period when children have to receive a suitable education. It starts when a child reaches the age of five and they must start school in the term following their fifth birthday. It finishes on the last Friday in June in the school year in which the child reaches the age of 16.

  • Convergence funding

    This is funding from Europe which aims to encourage more regional and strategic partnerships between providers.

  • Cooking Bus

    A Cooking Bus is a mobile classroom that provides schools with practical cooking lessons for pupils, teacher training sessions, and sessions for parents of young children.

  • Core curriculum

    The ESOL core curriculum sets out the national standards and levels for ESOL learners linked to the qualifications framework.

  • Core subjects

    There are four core subjects in the National Curriculum. These are English, Welsh (first language), mathematics and science.

  • Core subject indicator (CSI)

    This indicator shows the percentage of pupils who attain the level expected of them (level 4 or above) in mathematics, science and either English or Welsh as a first language.

  • Corporate parent

    A local authority is called the ‘corporate parent’ if they have been given the legal parental responsibility for a child as a result of being named in a care order.

  • County Voluntary Councils

    County Voluntary Councils represent and promote the voluntary sector within their local authority area.

  • Credit Union

    Credit Unions offer financial services to the community including loans, savings, current account, accounts and insurance.

  • Crime and Disorder Strategy

    The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 placed responsibilities on local authorities, the police, police authorities, health authorities and probation committees to co-operate in developing and putting into practice a strategy for tackling crime and disorder in their area.

  • Criminal Records Bureau

    Attached to the Home Office, this agency was set up to help organisations make safer recruitment decisions. It provides access to information on criminal records.


    Care and Social Services Inspectorate Wales (CSSIW) is a division of the Department of Public Services and Performance in the Welsh Government.

  • Custody

    A prison where offenders are serving sentences. It may be a public or private sector prison.

  • Cwricwlwm Cymreig

    Part of the National Curriculum that helps pupils to develop and use their knowledge and understanding of the cultural, economic, environmental, historical and linguistic characteristics of Wales. Also known as the ‘Welsh dimension’.

  • Cymorth

    Welsh Government funding for children and youth support services. It is aimed at children and young people who are from disadvantaged families. Children and Young People’s Partnerships manage this funding.

  • Continuous provision

    This term refers to the use of resources that are continuously available in the indoor or outdoor classroom for pupils to use independently. The resources should match pupils’ interests and general stage of development, and give them the opportunity to practise, consolidate and extend their learning. Generally, teachers designate parts of the classroom to support different areas of learning, such as role-play, construction, reading and creative development. Schools refer to these as areas of continuous provision. Where the continuous provision works well, practitioners plan carefully to make sure that it meets the needs and reflects the interests of each cohort of learners successfully. Where pupils choose the area they want to work in, and what they are going to do there freely, this is called ‘child-initiated learning’.